Paper Code: 
Contact Hours: 
Max. Marks: 
  • To help students develop the skills needed in conducting a research.
  • To introduce students to the skills in report writing.
  • To acquaint students with basic statistical techniques and their application.


Unit I: 
  • Definition and Concept of research
  • Objectives of research
  • Types of Research- Descriptive Vs Analytical, Applied Vs Fundamental, Quantitative Vs Qualitative, Conceptual Vs Empirical, Historical
  • Research Approaches
  • Research process, problems, criteria for good research, significance of research
Unit II: 
Research Design
  • Meaning, Need and Characteristics of good research design

  • Variables- Meaning and Concept, types
  • Research problem
  • Hypothesis- purpose, characteristics, types and criteria of hypothesis



Unit III: 
Data gathering instruments


  •  Observation & survey methods

  •  Techniques of data collection, Scrutiny of data, accuracy of measurements, testing of Questionnaires


Unit IV: 
Scaling and Sampling
  • Purpose of Scaling
  • Techniques of scaling
  • Types of Scales- Nominal, Ordinal, Interval and Ratio scales
  • Meaning of census and sample
  • Characteristics of a good sample
  • Need for sample
  • Types of Samples based on Probability and Non-probability sampling
  • Probability Sampling- Idea of simple random sampling, Stratified and Cluster sampling
  • Non-probability sampling- Purposive and Quota sampling
Unit V: 
Statistics: Meaning, Importance and limitations of Statistics
  • Classification and Tabulation of data
  • Discrete and Continuous variables.
  • Frequency distribution and Cumulative frequency distribution
  • Diagrammatic Presentation of data- One dimensional and two dimensional
  • Graphical Presentation of data- Histogram, Frequency Polygon, Frequency Curve and Ogives
  • Measures of Central Tendency- Mean, mode and median, their merits and demerits
  • Measures of Dispersion- Range, Quartile, Deviation, Mean Deviation and standard deviation, Coefficient of variation

  Research Report Writing:

  • Format of research report, presentation, bibliography, references.
Essential Readings: 
  1. Ahuja ,Ram., Research methods, Rawat Publications, Jaipur, 2001, 2003
  2. Kothari, C.R., Research methodology-methods & techniques. New age International Publishers, New Delhi 2007, 2015
  3. Gupta S.P., Statistical Methods, Sultan Chand & Sons, New Delhi 1997, 2003, 2004
  4. Kaplan, Abhram, The conduct of Behavioural Science ,Chandler Publishing Company
  5. Baker,L. Therese, Doing social Research, McGrawHill International Editions, Sociology  series
  6. Badarkar, P. L. and Wilkinson T.S., Methodology and Techniques of Social Reaserch, Himalya Publishing House, Mumbai, 2000
  7. C.M. Chaudhary, Research Methodology, RBSA Publication, Jaipur, 2009
  8. G.Vijaylakshmi, Research methods Tips and Techniques, MJP Publishers, Chennai
  1. Sancheti & Kapoor., Statistics, Sultan Chand and Sons, New Delhi.
  2. Badarkar, P.L. and Wilkinson T.S. (2000), Methodology and Techniques of Social Research, Himalaya Publishing House, Mumbai
Academic Year: